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SEN: the support given to teachers affected by bipolar disorder

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'Headmaster, I'm bi-polar'

Features | Published in TES Newspaper on 10 July, 2009 | By: Nick Morrison

If a pupil was diagnosed with a mental illness, you would help and support them. What if a colleague was in that situation? The reaction is often negative

When Paul first went off sick, his headteacher could hardly have been more solicitous. He was told to take as much time as he needed, and the head even turned up at Paul’s house one day with flowers for his wife.

A few months later it was a different story. The school could not afford a passenger, Paul* was told. On his return to work he was given an unenviable timetable. He says it was clear that the school wanted him out, and eventually he agreed to quit.

So what changed? Paul is in no doubt that the difference in the school’s attitude can be traced to the day he was diagnosed as bipolar, a psychiatric disorder where the sufferer experiences elevated highs and chronic lows. He still recalls the interview when he told his head he was bipolar. “He said to me, ‘Is that a posh word for calling you a schizo?’”

The stigma surrounding mental health means teachers with problems are unlikely to get a sympathetic reaction from their schools, according to John Illingworth, a former NUT president. Mr Illingworth, who left his job as a primary headteacher after a breakdown and led a working group on the issue that reported to the union’s annual conference this year, believes the extent of the problem is more widespread than previously thought.

Department of Health figures show about one person in eight is at risk of developing a mental illness, but research carried out for the NUT working group suggests teachers may be more vulnerable than most. The union found one in three teachers will suffer from mental health problems at some point in their career. An unwillingness to disclose mental illness means the true figure could be higher still.

“We know that teachers can be quite secretive and a lot of mental illness is reported as physical illness,” says Mr Illingworth. “If people do have problems, they have a fair chance of being treated pretty badly.”

Stress is a key trigger for mental illness, and this may explain why teachers are at greater risk: teaching was found to be the second most stressful occupation, after health and social welfare professionals, in the latest Labour Force Survey.

Paul’s illness was diagnosed after he was assaulted by a pupil. An English teacher at a secondary school in Tyneside, he was on duty at the school gate at the end of the day when he was attacked by a Year 11 pupil he had previously reported for swearing - earning the boy a temporary exclusion.

In what seems to have been a revenge attack, the boy swore at him and spat in his face. The boy swung at Paul, hitting him in the face and head, before he managed to push him away.

The incident happened towards the end of the year. The boy was already on study leave and no action was taken, and the remainder of the term passed without incident. But the following term, Paul, 35, began to feel anxious, initially when he was on duty in the school yard, later in the classroom.

“I started having anxiety attacks. I felt as though I couldn’t breathe properly and I was going to pass out,” he says. He believes these episodes were a direct result of the trauma of the attack. He went to see his GP, who prescribed beta-blockers and signed him off for three months. At first his head was supportive and Paul was offered counselling, but when a return to work proved short-lived and a referral to a consultant resulted in a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, there was a sudden shift.

“His attitude towards me changed,” says Paul. “At first he thought I’d had some kind of breakdown that I would get better from, but when he found out it was more long-term, he didn’t know how to deal with it. “It was that fear of the unknown. I don’t know whether he thought I was going to come in one day and kill lots of kids or if I was going to be off work even more, but he just didn’t want to know.”

Paul went back to work the following September, but his timetable was loaded with bottom sets and pupils with behaviour problems. His room had been taken away and he was forced to take every class in a different room; he discovered another teacher had been hired to take over his workload; he was told the school could not afford to carry a “passenger”. He lasted about three months before the stress made him go off sick again. “I was made to feel not wanted there. They didn’t make any effort.”

He was summoned to a meeting with the head and the local authority at the town hall where he was told occupational health thought that he would never be able to return to work. He was given the choice of agreeing to leave with two months’ salary or staying on knowing he would be unable to go back to work and his sick pay was due to run out. He opted to quit and left in November 2008.

“They wanted me out as quickly as possible,” he says. “If I had been a pupil diagnosed with bipolar there would have been a notice on the staffroom wall about how to deal with me, but it doesn’t work the same for staff.

“I can’t believe I’m the only teacher who is going to have mental health issues at some point, but nobody knew what they were dealing with.”

A survey for the Teacher Support Network last year found that almost nine out of 10 teachers had suffered from stress in the previous two years, with two thirds claiming to have felt anxiety and 42 per cent to have been depressed. Of these, 60 per cent said issues in the workplace were responsible, with workload cited as the biggest cause, followed by the pace of change and pupil behaviour.

Julian Stanley, the network’s chief executive, says teachers find it hard to overcome the stigma of asking for help. “People feel they can’t talk about these issues in schools. They’re not going to make themselves feel vulnerable if they feel there isn’t a mechanism where they are supported,” he says.

Mental illness is often seen as a sign of weakness, he says, while school managers may not feel they have the training to deal with mental health issues. “We need to work on turning policies and procedures into practice, and a lot of that is about training and development,” he says.

Teachers can be particularly unforgiving of mental illness, adds Mr Illingworth. He believes attributes that are useful for teaching can prevent them from empathising with a struggling colleague.

“It is part of the persona of a teacher to show that you are in control: if you’re not in control in the classroom then somebody else is,” he says. “There is this ‘I can cope’ attitude, and you don’t get much sympathy for people who become ill.” He says teachers suffering from mental illness even get blamed for bringing it on themselves, in a way those with physical ailments never are.

He says the level of stress in teaching, resulting from workload pressure, managing behaviour problems and workplace bullying, significantly increases the chances of going on to develop illnesses such as depression and anxiety.

Stress-induced illness is a key factor in explaining the high proportion of teachers who leave the profession within three years, retire early or opt to work part-time, he adds.

He believes only a cultural change can make a difference, both in increasing understanding of mental health issues and in ensuring the emphasis shifts towards preventative work, such as involving occupational health at an early stage rather than as part of a dismissal process.

Mental health charities last year launched an £18 million lottery-funded campaign to try to change attitudes towards mental health problems and reduce discrimination. Time to Change features celebrities including Stephen Fry and Ruby Wax talking about their battles with depression but Emma Mamo of Mind, one of the charities involved, says there is still a lot of stigma in mental illness. “It is very much an invisible disability and there is a huge difference in the way people respond,” she says. “It creates a fear that someone is not in control and employers can be scared of that.”

The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) of 1995, extended in 2005, gives people with mental illnesses protection in employment, but its effects seem to be limited.

A survey by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development found 52 per cent of organisations said they had no experience of hiring people with a history of mental health issues, and research for the Department of Work and Pensions shows employers are less likely to appoint staff with mental health problems than those with a criminal record.

“The DDA has not really worked for people with mental health problems,” says Ms Mamo. “You can have all the legal protections in the world, but it is public attitudes that need to change.”

Paul would like to return to teaching, but since leaving his school he has been unable to even look for work. Some days he feels fine, others he can’t leave the house. He has gone from earning about £30,000 a year to living on £100 a week incapacity benefit.

“Holding down a job can seem fine, but all of a sudden you find yourself hitting the buffers,” he says. He believes his symptoms were exaggerated by the assault at school, but now he knows he is likely to be bipolar for the rest of his life. He is still experimenting with medication to find a combination that will stabilise his moods as much as possible. When he does, he hopes he will be able to return to work again.

“I would love to be back working in a school,” he says. “Hopefully there will be a headteacher somewhere who will be able to see beyond the bipolar and think I can still do a good job, but realistically I know that now I have this diagnosis it is going to be very difficult to get back.”

  • Name has been changed.

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Comment (12)

  • I taught for four years as an undiagnosed bipolar. I am now a year off medication and my condition is stable. I would very much like to return to teaching.Perhaps a lobby could be started to allow Bipolar Disorder sufferers to return to teaching.Unfortunately stress is a key trigger for the condition but this stress is not necessarily reated by pupils and the teaching itself but by unsympathetic school management, politics and hierarchies in schools.My heart goes out to Paul.

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    16:44
    10 July, 2009

    St David

  • I suffer from depression brought on by excessive stress. Comments by the hT, who appears sympathetic, indicate that I should consider resigning because i won't be able to cope with the pressure that we are going to be under from now on. The workload is becoming excessive and the expectation is that we have to work harder ie more hours, do more paper work, be monitored more, observed more, work trawled more etc. Nothing is being offered to help because 'that is the job'.

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    21:51
    10 July, 2009

    rohirrim

  • I keep my bipolar secret as far as employers are concerned. Have been lucky to be stable on Lithium and Olanzapine. About to publicly facilitate a Bipolar support group, I am wondering what the reaction would be if I make my illness more widely known. Is it an excuse that I left at least one job because I couldn't cope? Was it really the bipolar or a case of suitability as far as the particular job was concerned?

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    22:52
    10 July, 2009

    Glimmer

  • Whilst my heart goes out to 'Paul', we have to remember the effect of teachers with mental health issues on the learning of students. As a Senior Leader in a large secondary school, I would need to be sure that someone with bipolar disorder could effectively manage their condition in the work place.

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    20:01
    11 July, 2009

    violet63

  • in response to violet163, people with mental health issues have a far better chance of managing their condition in the workplace if they get the right support and empathy from management. I was recently dismissed from my job due to absences caused by severe work-related stress; I appealed against the decision and the governors rescinded the dismissal; I was lucky as the govs were sensitive to my disability; this seems to happen rarely, but hopefully a precedent has been set and others will benefit. More empolyers need to be aware and act positively towards staff with mental health issues.

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    21:32
    11 July, 2009

    anon1900

  • I would hope that 'Senior Leaders' in schools would take account of the medical needs of all staff and pupils. After all, the news that a female teacher needs to take maternity leave could have an 'effect' on the learning of students - if the school does not have systems in place to cope with such a situation.
    violet63 has written about 'someone with bipolar' being able to 'effectively manage their condition in the work place' but in order to do so, the someone in question would need adequate support from 'senior leaders' at the school. Unfortunately, the example cited in this week's TES article (about 'Paul') shows ignorance and fear on the part of a senior leader at a secondary school. This head-teacher in question did not know what a bi-polar disorder is - never mind how to support a member of staff - and that is quite shocking in this day and age

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    23:08
    11 July, 2009

    Sanddancer36

  • In response to above; there is alot of information available to heads and senior leaders in schools; so there is NO excuse for such ignorance to exist. It was down to me to undertake all the research and to present the relevent documents to the E2 panel. Thank goodness the appeal panel took the docs seriously. All the docs are available on the net; if anyone needs pinpointing in the right direction, please contact me via the tes website.

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    9:43
    12 July, 2009

    anon1900

  • I suffered from bipolar disorder for 20 years before I found out about the dangers of amalgam dental fillings. I also suffered a lot of other ghastly symptoms; foul metallic taste, headaches, irritable bowel. As soon as I had the fillings replaced with composites, all my symptoms disappeared.

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    1:30
    13 July, 2009

    alison_2

  • I am a former serving Police Officer and Mental Health Worker. I suffer from bi-polar disorder! Where do you imagine I was bullied? When I encountered bullying in the workplace, similar t that which features here, it had nothing to do with my Mental Heath, but once I made a complaint it became all to do with my illness, which I had informed them about at interview. A grievance report intimated that because of my mental health I "lacked resilliance". My employer was a Health organisation!

    We should be able to feel 'safe' at wrk, and able to be open about our health, but sadly 'stigma' and 'discrmination' around mental health forces people into hiding their health, and places them under more pressure!

    I wish you well, and thank you for sharing your story with us. It really is Time to Change!

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    15:45
    13 July, 2009

    Quinonostante

  • I have Bipolar affective disorder. I came off the medication for 2 months, after recently being employed in a school starting in Sept 08. This act meant I wasnt in control of my actions whilst teaching...which, without going into details, caused many problems. I now face a disciplinary hearing which will probably result in my dismissal. Finding another post is going to be problematic.The school have completely ignored my condition as a defense for my misconduct. Furthermore, they worsoned things whilst I was/am suspended. I have filed grievances against the school and am now taking legal advice as to whether I would have a case for a) unfair dismissal on the basis of disability discrimination, b) a possible personal injury claim c) a civil suit directed at the perpetrators of negligent conduct whist I was suspended.Your only recouse is to bite the bullet and get good legal advice, which is worth paying for.beckett 1106

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    12:54
    14 July, 2009

    beckett1106

  • I am the manager of the Education Not Discrimination (END) project manager which is one of the Time to Change national projects (located in Rethink). We are delivering anti-stigma and discrimination training in three target audiences: medical school, trainee teachers and high level staff and those with a pastoral role in school clusters. The mode of delivery is quite different in each, but in the education field we present a play called On the Edge about the onset of psychosis in a seventeen year old boy. This is followed by workshops around the characters (parents, peers, teachers) and the session goes on to build confidence in the teachers, give information and develop strategies for more positive outcomes. The audience also hears personal testimonies from our trained Involvement Workers.Thank you for your really helpful contributionsIf you would like to read more about the project or get more involved please see the END section on the Time To Change website or email Sally Gomme on sally.gomme@rehtink.org or phone 07918 678372

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    14:26
    15 July, 2009

    SallyGomme

  • I quoted the Time to change adverts in the meetings leading up to my dismissal. Thank you Sally; can you please send the details to sumlushlass@yahoo.com; Beckett1106, I may be able to help if you make contact with me, having just had a successful outcome to my dismissal predicament. I may be able to point you in the right direction for support that may help with your financial outlay for legal support.

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

    8:52
    16 July, 2009

    anon1900

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